http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/principle

basic idea or rule that explains or controls how something happens or works:

http://www.softwaretestingandistqb.com/7-fundamental-principles-of-software-testing-as-per-istqb/

Basically, the principle is nothing but the rules or law which has to be followed.
Or you can say principles are the essential characteristic of the system which needs to follow for developing the best system. Ignoring any one principle may cost the effectiveness towards the performance of the system. A principle of software testing refers to the brief mentioned and proven concepts which guide testing professionals during software testing process.

 

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